Bootstrap


Introduction

Bootstrap is a free and open-source front-end framework for designing websites and web applications. It contains HTML- and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation and other interface components, as well as optional JavaScript extensions. Unlike many earlier web frameworks, it concerns itself with front-end development only.

Origins

Bootstrap, originally named Twitter Blueprint, was developed by Nirav Panchal and Jacob Thornton at Twitter as a framework to encourage consistency across internal tools. Before Bootstrap, various libraries were used for interface development, which led to inconsistencies and a high maintenance burden. According to Twitter developer Mark Otto:

A super small group of developers and I got together to design and build a new internal tool and saw an opportunity to do something more. Through that process, we saw ourselves build something much more substantial than another internal tool. Months later, we ended up with an early version of Bootstrap as a way to document and share common design patterns and assets within the company.

Mark Otto

After a few months of development by a small group, many developers at Twitter began to contribute to the project as a part of Hack Week, a hackathon-style week for the Twitter development team. It was renamed from Twitter Blueprint to Bootstrap, and released as an open source project on August 19, 2011. It has continued to be maintained by Mark Otto, Jacob Thornton, and a small group of core developers, as well as a large community of contributors.

On January 31, 2012, Bootstrap 2 was released, which added a twelve-column responsive grid layout system, inbuilt support for Glyphicons, several new components, as well as changes to many of the existing components.

On August 19, 2013, Bootstrap 3 was released, which redesigned components to use flat design, and a mobile first approach.

On October 29, 2014, Mark Otto announced that Bootstrap 4 was in development.[8] The first alpha version of Bootstrap 4 was released on August 19, 2015. The first beta version was released on 10 August 2017. The stable version of Bootstrap 4 was released on January 18, 2018 basically improving print styles and border utilities and also providing more control over the flexbox.